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Saturday, 26 March 2022




With the global initiative of eradication of polio in 1988 following World Health Assembly resolution in 1988, Pulse Polio Immunization programme was launched in India in 1995. Children in the age group of 0-5 years administered polio drops during National and Sub-national immunization rounds (in high risk areas) every year. Around 17.4 crore children of less than five years across the country are given polio drops as part of the drive of Government of India to sustain polio eradication from the country.

The last polio case in the country was reported from Howrah district of West Bengal with date of onset 13th January 2011. Thereafter no polio case has been reported in the country. WHO on 24th February 2012 removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission.


The Pulse Polio Initiative was started with an objective of achieving hundred per cent coverage under Oral Polio Vaccine. It aimed to immunize children through improved social mobilization, plan mop-up operations in areas where poliovirus has almost disappeared and maintain high level of morale among the public.

Steps taken by the Government to maintain polio free status in India

  • Maintaining community immunity through high quality National and Sub National polio rounds each year.
  • An extremely high level of vigilance through surveillance across the country for any importation or circulation of poliovirus and VDPV is being maintained. Environmental surveillance (sewage sampling) have been established to detect poliovirus transmission and as a surrogate indicator of the progress as well for any programmatic interventions strategically in Mumbai, Delhi, Patna, Kolkata Punjab and Gujarat.
  • All States and Union Territories in the country have developed a Rapid Response Team (RRT) to respond to any polio outbreak in the country. An Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP) has also been developed  by  all  States  indicating  steps  to  be  undertaken  in  case  of detection of a polio case.
  • To reduce risk of importation from neighbouring countries, international border vaccination is being provided through continuous vaccination teams (CVT) to all eligible children round the clock. These are provided through special booths set up at the international borders that India shares with Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan Nepal and Myanmar.
  • Government of India has issued guidelines for mandatory requirement of polio vaccination to all international travelers before their departure from India to polio affected countries namely:  Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Syria and Cameroon. The mandatory requirement is effective for travellers from 1st March 2014.
  • A rolling emergency stock of OPV is being maintained to respond to detection/importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) or emergence of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).
  • National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI) has recommended Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV) introduction as an additional dose along with 3rd dose of DPT in the entire country in the last quarter of 2015 as a part of polio endgame strategy.


  • South-East Asia Region of WHO has been certified polio free. The Regional  Certification  Commission  (RCC)  on  27th  March  2014  issued certificate  which  states  that  “The  Commission  concludes,  from  the evidence  provided  by  the  National  Certificate  Committees  of  the  11 Member  States,  that  the  transmission  of  indigenous  wild  poliovirus  has been interrupted in all countries of the Region.”
  • India has achieved the goal of polio eradication as no polio case has been reported  for  more  than  3  years  after  last  case  reported  on  13th  January, 2011.
  • WHO on 24th February 2012 removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission
  • There are 24 lakh vaccinators and 1.5 lakh supervisors involved in the successful implementation of the Pulse Polio Programme
  • The total number of cases and number of affected districts during past 10 years is as below:




We’ve all heard of AIDS, but few of us know much about it. Understanding HIV and AIDS can help you be more supportive of people who have it and reduce your chances for becoming infected. Learn the basics about HIV/AIDS to raise your awareness about this infection.


What is HIV/AIDS?

HIV is an abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus; the term “HIV” can refer to either the virus itself or the HIV infection it causes. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and is the last stage of HIV infection.

HIV attacks important cells in your immune system, called CD4 or T cells, that fight infections. As HIV destroys CD4 cells, it becomes harder for your body to fight off infections. Eventually, HIV can destroy the immune system and progress to AIDS if not treated.


The Spread of HIV

Transmission of HIV occurs through contact with certain body fluids of someone infected with HIV. These fluids include:

  • Blood
  • Semen
  • Vaginal fluid
  • Anal fluid
  • Breast milk

The most common form of HIV transmission in the United States is sharing drug injection equipment with or having sex with someone infected with HIV. Mothers with HIV can also pass the virus on to their child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, but proper treatment greatly reduces this risk.


Prevention of HIV

Reduce your risk of becoming infected with HIV by practicing the following safe behaviors:

  • Correctly use condoms every time you have sex
  • Limit the number of sexual partners
  • Never share equipment for injecting drugs


Stages of HIV

There are three stages of HIV infection: acute HIV infection, clinical latency and AIDS. The infection gets worse as it progresses, eventually overwhelming your immune system without proper treatment. Progression through the stages occurs at different rates depending on a number of factors, including:

  • Genetic makeup
  • Level of health before infection
  • Amount of exposure to the virus
  • Genetic characteristics of the virus
  • How quickly treatment begins
  • Proper use of HIV medications
  • Health-related choices such as exercise, a healthy diet and not smoking


Stage 1: Acute HIV Infection

Two to four weeks after getting infected with HIV, people may develop severe flu-like symptoms. This is the acute HIV infection stage, which is also sometimes called “primary HIV infection” or “acute retroviral syndrome.” The symptoms can include:

  • Swollen glands
  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Sore throat
  • Joint and muscle aches and pains
  • Headache

Large amounts of HIV are being produced during this stage, so the number of CD4 cells drops rapidly. The immune response eventually brings the level of HIV down to a relatively stable level called the viral set point. Once the virus level drops, CD4 levels begin to rise, but usually don’t return to pre-infection levels. Due to the high levels of HIV, people in this stage are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.


Stage 2: Clinical Latency

After the initial acute stage, HIV moves into the clinical latency stage, sometimes called “chronic HIV infection” or “asymptomatic HIV infection.” The term “latency” is used because the virus lives and reproduces at low levels within the infected individual without producing symptoms. Even though people are free of symptoms during the clinical latency stage, it’s still possible to transmit HIV to others; treatment helps reduce this risk.

Without treatment, the clinical latency stage usually lasts around 10 years, although people may progress through it faster or slower depending on a number of factors. When the viral load begins to rise again and CD4 levels fall, you eventually progress to the third and final stage of HIV infection.


Stage 3: AIDS

In the final stage of HIV infection, the immune system is badly damaged and the body becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections. You have progressed to AIDS when at least one of the following occurs:

  • The level of CD4 cells falls to less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
  • You develop one or more opportunistic infections

People with AIDS usually survive about three years without treatment. Starting treatment after you have AIDS is helpful, but it’s more beneficial to begin treatment during one of the earlier stages. Most people with HIV in the United States rarely progress to AIDS thanks to effective treatment that controls the disease progression.


HIV Treatment

There is currently no cure for HIV, but people with HIV can live healthier, longer lives with proper treatment. Using HIV medicines to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. It includes a combination of HIV medicines taken every day. ART prevents the multiplication of HIV and lowers the amount of HIV in the body. Lower levels of HIV helps protect the immune system and keeps HIV infection from advancing to AIDS. Proper treatment also reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others.


Testing for HIV

The only way to determine whether or not you have HIV is to get tested. It’s important to know if you are infected because you can take steps to reduce the likelihood of transmitting HIV to others and start treatment. Early treatment is the best way to control the progression of HIV. If you notice flu-like symptoms after suspected exposure to HIV, then see a health care provider immediately. Because HIV infection can be difficult to detect with testing during the initial stage, it’s important to tell your healthcare provider that you think you’re at risk.

HIV/AIDS is a serious infection that attacks the immune system. However, with proper treatment, people infected with HIV can often live as long as someone without the infection.


In India, across over 6,50,000 villages  and 2,50,000 panchayats represented by 3 million panchayat members. Approx 40% population is living below poverty line, illiteracy rate is more than 25-30% and digital literacy is almost no-existent among more than 90% of India’s population.

While the country boasts the world’s second fastest-growing mobile market, it is lagging behind when it comes to internet connectivity. Connecting the community and its members to the world through the Internet is becoming increasingly essential for community vitality for the development and social progress in recent years.

According to the IAMAI report, there were about 30,000,000 internet users in rural India in December 2011. The 50 per cent spike leading to the expected 45,000,000 by December 2012 is primarily driven by mobile internet access, community centers and cyber cafes. However, within rural communities, the task to empower using ICT can still be challenging, but many of us have been dedicating time and energies to empower trouble torn community.


In a country with more than 6,50,000 villages, where more than half of its population live in rural areas and off-the-map villages. Most are remote and too isolated to benefit from the country’s impressive economic progress. Yet there’s a growing desire among people in rural India to be part of its modernization process. But, the last-mile delivery has always been a challenge for India. Increasingly the government with the support of NGOs is looking at better ways to reach remote, rural India.

As per the NSSO Level and Pattern of Consumer Expenditure Report 2011, only 3.5 households in 1000 rural households in rural India had internet connectivity at home in 2009-2010. And there are close to 90,000 rural info kiosks (Common Service Centres, Community Information Resource Centres and others) in India, and around 5452 CSCs are located in the state. However, these kiosks lack internet connectivity and services to delivery at people’s doorsteps. To make India digitally literate, it is important 3.5 million people to be digitally literate.

For this purpose, the Universal Services Obligation Fund (USOF) has established Bharat Broadband Network Ltd. (BBNL) to roll out the National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) plan. BBNL will lay out the optic fiber cable terminating in each of the 250,000 gram panchayats in the country, providing 100 MBPs link to be used as information highway to be utilized diversely by all kind of stakeholders to ensure that digital inclusion has reached in all villages across the country. For this, BBNL has identified three pilot blocks – Arain (Rajasthan); Naogang (North Tripura) and Pravada (Visakhapatnam) where the fiber connectivity would be reached and the same would be available for usage free for a month and later on do costing of the project.

With a hope and desire to light up the rural communities and to complement the objectives of NOFN plan, Digital Empowerment Foundation (DEF) supported by with Intel Corporation as a part of the National Digital Literacy Mission has launched Follow the Fibre Programme (FtF) to help rural communities conquer this challenge of digital illiteracy.

About NDLM

National Digital Literacy Mission Programme is a dynamic and integrated platform of digital literacy awareness, education and capacity programmes that will help rural communities to take lead in the global digital economy and help them in maintaining the competitiveness and also shape a technologically empowered society. NDLM is an effort to complement the objectives of National Optic Fibre Netowrk (NOFN) plan to transform one from each household as digitally literate. Under NDLM, we pledge to work with multi-stakeholder to Digitally Literate at least One adult from each of 147 million rural household of India.

DLM will be an ecosystem of digital literacy awareness, education and training that will help India take a lead in the global digital economy and help us maintain the competitiveness and also shape a technologically empowered society. DLM is an effort to extend NOFN objectives to empower rural citizens by making them digitally literate.


The vision of Digital Literacy Mission (DLM) is to create multi-stakeholder, consortium and work with government and their various schemes and agendas to showcase in some of those panchayats constituencies that how making them digitally literate can change the scenario of governance, empowerment, social inclusion, educational approach and employment.


  • To empower rural communities with capacity building & training programmes and make them digitally literate
  • To facilitate deployment of rural citizen services through digital means
  • To create a digital data house at every rural community level to make them economically viable
  • To generate social, cultural and economic advantages for rural communities with two information and content gateway




Common Services Centre (CSC) programme is an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics & IT (MeitY), Government of India. CSCs are the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages in India, thereby contributing to a digitally and financially inclusive society.

CSCs are more than service delivery points in rural India. They are positioned as change agents, promoting rural entrepreneurship and building rural capacities and livelihoods. They are enablers of community participation and collective action for engendering social change through a bottom-up approach with key focus on the rural citizen.

CSC e-Governance Services India Limited is a Special Purpose Vehicle (CSC SPV) incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India, to monitor the implementation of the Common Services Centers Scheme. It provides a centralized collaborative framework for delivery of services to citizens through CSCs, besides ensuring systemic viability and sustainability of the scheme.

Common Service Centres and Digital India

Digital India is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.

CSCs enable the three vision areas of the Digital India programme:

  1. Digital infrastructure as Utility to Every Citizen
  2. Governance and services on demand
  3. Digital empowerment of citizens


  1. Village Level Entrepreneur (VLE) to provide service to the rural consumer in villages.
  2. The agency designated by the State - State Designated Agency (SDA)—to facilitate implementation of the Scheme within the State.
  3. Others include central ministries, their departments and other central agencies to offer various services to the citizens and partner banks (public and private sector) and regional rural banks to enable CSCs to become Banking Correspondent Agents / Customer Service Points to deliver various banking and financial services.

Services offered

The CSCs would provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and data content and services, in the areas of e-governance, education, health, telemedicine, entertainment as well as other private services. A highlight of the CSCs is that it will offer web-enabled e-governance services in rural areas, including application forms, certificates, and utility payments such as electricity, telephone and water bills. In addition to the universe of G2C services, a wide variety of content and services that are offered are:

  1. Agriculture Services (Agriculture, Horticulture, Sericulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Veterinary)
  2. Education & Training Services (School, College, Vocational Education, Employment, etc.)
  3. Health Services (Telemedicine, Health Check-ups, Medicines)
  4. Rural Banking & Insurance Services (Micro-credit, Loans, Insurance)
  5. Entertainment Services (Movies, Television)
  6. Utility Services (Bill Payments, Online bookings)
  7. Commercial Services (DTP, Printing, Internet Browsing, Village level BPO).

CSC 2.0 Scheme

Under the Digital India programme, at least one CSC (preferably more than one) is envisaged in 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats for delivery of various electronic services to citizens across rural India. This would include strengthening and integrating the existing 100,000 CSCs under the CSC scheme and making operational an additional 1.5 lakh CSCs in Gram Panchayats.

CSC 2.0 is a service delivery oriented entrepreneurship model with a large bouquet of services made available for the citizens through optimum utilization of infrastructure already created in the form of SWAN, SSDG, e-District, SDC, and NOFN/BharatNet.

Objectives of CSC 2.0

  • Non-discriminatory access to e-Services for rural citizens by making CSCs complete service delivery centres, utilizing the infrastructure already created in terms of other Mission Mode Projects.
  • Expansion of self-sustaining CSC network till the Gram Panchayat level – 2.5 lakh CSCs, i.e. at least one CSC per Gram Panchayat, more than one preferred.
  • Empowering District e-Governance Society (DeGS) under the district administration for implementation.
  • Creating and strengthening the institutional framework for rollout and project management, thereby, supporting the State and District administrative machinery and handholding of VLEs through local language Help Desk support.
  • Enablement and consolidation of online services under single technology platform, thereby making the service delivery at CSCs accountable, transparent, efficient and traceable, with a technology-driven relationship between all stakeholders.
  • Providing Centralized Technological Platform for delivery of various services in a transparent manner to the citizens.
  • Increasing sustainability of VLEs by sharing maximum commission earned through delivery of e-services and encouraging women to join as VLEs.

Best Courses For School and College Dropouts In India


1. Mobile Repairing Course

With the ever-growing popularity of smartphones and increasing demand for electronic gadgets, there is a growing requirement for technicians and repairmen who can mend damaged phones and tablets. It is evident that as the supply and manufacture of smartphones are constantly increasing, the need for mobile repairing technicians will also increase simultaneously.

mobile repairing course by Prizm Institute, Mumbai


Students who have dropped out from schools or colleges can reach out to a mobile repairing institute in Mumbai like Prizm Institute that offers mobile repairing courses to learn the required skills and thus start their career in this field.

Mobile repairing course is one of the best short term career courses for students in India for those who drop out of school or college and are looking out for an alternative career option.


2. CCTV Installation Course

To enhance the career options of dropouts in society, there are numerous opportunities that give them a chance to earn their daily bread. CCTV installation is one such job that can be taken into consideration if a person does not have any particular educational backup.


CCTV installation course

As it does not require any pre-designed technical background, any diploma or certificate course in CCTV installation will pave way for an employment opportunity in this surveillance field. With the introduction of advanced security surveillance equipment, there is a massive requirement for technicians in India who are skilled at installing closed circuit security cameras.


3. Gym Trainer Courses

With increased health concerns caused by a rigorous lifestyle, people are getting more health-conscious and working towards achieving a healthy and enriched well-being. Whether it’s to shed those extra pounds or to maintain a balanced lifestyle, most people rely on well-equipped gyms and fitness centers to achieve their goal for that perfect body.


Gym trainer and personal fitness trainer courses

Students (with an affinity for fitness) facing the problem of unemployment due to lack of a required educational background, can undergo a training course in personal fitness so that they can earn a good livelihood by further guiding people to achieve the perks of fitness. They can then work in the capacity of a gym instructor or a personal fitness trainer in gyms and assist people in their goal of getting a fit or desired body.


4. Lab Technician (DMLT Course)

Being a lab technician requires eligibility of higher secondary education, through which students can easily take up DMLT and apply in any reputed clinic, pathology lab or hospital. Lab technicians are basically assistants to lab pathologists and they assist them with their experiments and investigations. There are various renowned institutes in India offering proper guidance and training (some of which also offer certificate courses) catering to the growing job opportunities for lab technicians across the nation.

Read 10 Best Career Oriented Certificate Courses after 10th and 12th in India


5. Computer Hardware & Networking Technician

Technology is growing at a tremendous pace and with a newer and better computer and laptop models being launched by companies across the globe, there is a huge increase in requirement of labour that is well versed with the technicality of each device. As a computer hardware techniciandropouts can figure out a stable and reliable source of income.


computer hardware and networking courses

Computer hardware course is mostly combined by networking which makes it a long term diploma that includes both, theoretical and practical teachings to enable students to sustain a reputed career in this field. The scope for hardware and networking engineers is very good in the near future.

With the advent of cloud technology, as all data centres are moving to cloud, the need and demand for cloud technology experts is also increasing day by day.  Learning networking along with computer hardware improves career prospects and growth potential.

Prizm Institute also conducts computer hardware and networking course to assist students to become professional computer hardware and networking professionals.

6. SEO or Digital Marketing Course

This IT based course has plenty of scope. With businesses moving online, there is a specific requirement for all businesses to rank their products and services in search engines to reach potential customers. All shops, businesses and companies need to have a website and an online strategy today to reach potential customers and sell their wares online along with the old offline marketing strategy.

Digital marketing which includes SEO, SMM, SEM, PPC is one of the most in-demand courses for people searching for good career options. You have to join the best SEO training course institutes to learn the required skills and become an expert in the field.


7. Electrician Course

This course, in particular, is preferred by most of the dropouts as it doesn’t require any educational background and one can easily learn the appropriate practices to become an electrician. But there are various institutes that train students to be a professional electrician by providing all the necessary practical knowledge required.


Electrician course in India

Non Formal Education

 Non-formal education refers to education that occurs outside the formal school system. Non-formal education is often used interchangeably with terms such as community education, adult education, lifelong education and second-chance education. It refers to a wide range of educational initiatives in the community, ranging from home-based learning to government schemes and community initiatives. It includes accredited courses run by well-established institutions as well as locally based operations with little funding.

As non-formal education is diverse, this element has many aspects in common with other elements, particularly Lifelong learning. For the purposes of these guidelines, this element focuses on non-formal education for children and young people outside the regular school system. However, CBR personnel need to be aware that non-formal education reinforces marginalization and stigmatization, so if possible it should not be offered as the only educational option for children with disabilities. Inclusion in a regular school should be prioritized as every child's right.

While non-formal education is often considered a second-best option to formal education, it should be noted that it can provide higher-quality education than that available in formal schools. Non-formal education can be preparatory, supplementary or an excellent alternative (where necessary) to formal schooling for all children.


People with disabilities develop knowledge and skills, which help to improve their quality of life.

The role of CBR

The role of CBR is to work with non-formal education programmes to ensure that people with disabilities are able to access educational opportunities suited to their own needs and interests in inclusive settings.

Desirable outcomes

  • People with disabilities participate in non-formal education programmes and learn literacy, numeracy and other skills which contribute to better living conditions.
  • Non-formal education programmes include people with disabilities and consider their needs during programme planning.
  • People with disabilities, family members, disabled people's organizations and parents' associations are involved in decision-making and implementing non-formal education programmes.
  • Home-based learning is available either as a supplement to formal schooling, or in preparation for formal schooling, or as an alternative to formal schooling.
  • Social cohesion is strengthened as students with disabilities and non-disabled students interact together and develop friendships.